Blood Groups in Human

More than forty blood groups are discovered. Out of these forty blood groups only ABO and Rh blood groups are clinically significant. The blood groups are designated on the basis of presence of particular type of antigens. The ABO blood group is determined by presence of A and B antigens on the RBCs. Presence of Rhesus factor determines Rh blood group.
The A and B antigens are produced by adding a terminal sugar on the H substance. Absence of the terminal sugar on the H substance leads to production of Bombay phenotype.

The Chordate Characteristics and Classification

All the animals are classified on various criteria, viz. cellularity, body symmetry, number of germ layers, coelomic cavity, and method of coelom formation. Besides these criteria, animals are classified into two groups based on the presence or absence of Notochord. These groups are- (A). Non-Chordates, also called Invertebrates¬† (B). Chordates. While the vertebrates comprise the …

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Major Non-Chordate Phyla and their characteristics

Phylum Porifera Porifera is derived from the Latin words porous, meaning “pore or opening,” and -fer meaning “bearing.” So, Porifera means “bearing numerous pores or openings.” The organism of this phylum bears numerous pores which perforate the body wall. Habitat: There are about 8000 species of Porifera, of which more than 98% are marine and …

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What is Monkeypox? The recent outbreak of monkeypox in many African and Non-African nations attracted many people’s attention. According to a report from, at least 160 confirmed cases have been reported in non-African countries. Monkeypox is a viral disease caused by a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus. The monkeypox virus belongs to the family poxviridae and …

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