Biology Club

Blood Groups in Human

More than forty blood groups are discovered. Out of these forty blood groups only ABO and Rh blood groups are clinically significant. The blood groups are designated on the basis of presence of particular type of antigens. The ABO blood group is determined by presence of A and B antigens on the RBCs. Presence of Rhesus factor determines Rh blood group.
The A and B antigens are produced by adding a terminal sugar on the H substance. Absence of the terminal sugar on the H substance leads to production of Bombay phenotype.

The Chordate Characteristics and Classification

All the animals are classified on various criteria, viz. cellularity, body symmetry, number of germ layers, coelomic cavity, and method of coelom formation. Besides these criteria, animals are classified into two groups based on the presence or absence of Notochord. These groups are- (A). Non-Chordates, also called Invertebrates  (B). Chordates. While the vertebrates comprise the …

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Major Non-Chordate Phyla and their characteristics

Phylum Porifera Porifera is derived from the Latin words porous, meaning “pore or opening,” and -fer meaning “bearing.” So, Porifera means “bearing numerous pores or openings.” The organism of this phylum bears numerous pores which perforate the body wall. Habitat: There are about 8000 species of Porifera, of which more than 98% are marine and …

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Classification and relationship of various Animal phyla

Classification is essential to studying animals (and other organisms). It is necessary for tracing the evolutionary relationship of all organisms. The ordering of the taxa can be done in various ways. The closely related organisms are put together, forming a taxon. There are fundamental features common to various individuals based on which they are grouped. …

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What is Monkeypox? The recent outbreak of monkeypox in many African and Non-African nations attracted many people’s attention. According to a report from, at least 160 confirmed cases have been reported in non-African countries. Monkeypox is a viral disease caused by a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus. The monkeypox virus belongs to the family poxviridae and …

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What is a biomolecule?

A biomolecule is a chemical compound found in living things. Biomolecules are the building blocks of life and perform important functions in living organisms.


Oceanography is a means of in-depth study of the ocean in which physics, chemistry, biology and geology help to study each other together. Basically, there are four branches of oceanography which study the ocean in different ways: Physical oceanography: In this, the nature of seawater (temperature, density etc.), the speed of seawater, the study of …



Introduction The study of living things and their life process, interaction with other organisms, and – surroundings is called biology. The encyclopedia Britannica defines biology as “the science of living things and their vital processes. It deals with all physicochemical aspects of life.” Merriam webster dictionary defines biology as “a branch of knowledge that deals …



Introduction The organisms of kingdom Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, feed by absorption of nutrients from dead or decaying materials (saprophytic heterotrophs) or are parasitic to plants and animals or may form symbiotic relationship, mycorrhiza with higher plants and lichens with algae. True fungi have cell walls composed primarily of N-acetylglucosamine polymer, …

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Hormones: Secretion and Action

1. Introduction In human and other animals traffic of signals from one part of body to another part is sent via biomolecules synthesized and/or secreted by cells (or organs). The signalling may involve cell itself (autocrine signaling) or to a nearby target (paracrine signaling) or to the cell in contact/extracellular matrix (juxtacrine signaling) or to …

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