BIOLOGY AND BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY

Introduction

The study of living things and their life process, interaction with other organisms, and – surroundings is called biology. The encyclopedia Britannica defines biology as “the science of living things and their vital processes. It deals with all physicochemical aspects of life.” https://www.britannica.com/science/biology Merriam webster dictionary defines biology as “a branch of knowledge that deals with living
organisms and vital processes.”http://” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biology. The term biology originated from Greek “bios life, one’s life, lifetime” and “-logy study of” so, biology is “study of one’s life(time).” The term biology was suggested by a German naturalist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1802) and introduced as a scientific term that year in French by Lamarck. However, the term biology was used in 1802 the knowledge about the living system exists from the remote past, and the same is known by different names in different languages. In Sanskrit, biology is known as Jiva-Vigyan, derived from the word jivah meaning alive, living; in Old Persian it is jivaka- alive; in Middle Persian zhiwak alive; in Lithuanian gyvas living, alive. 

Branches of Biology

There are several branches of biology (sometimes also known as life science). The branch that deals with the animals is called zoology and that which deals with plants is known as botany

Ecology is the branch which studies about interaction of living organisms with their non-living surrounding. Some other branches and the aspect they deal with are listed below.
Agronomy– soil management and crop production
Agriculture– the cultivation of plants and livestock
Anthropology– the study of human structure, development, culture, and social evolution
Apiculture– rearing and maintenance of bees, extraction, and marketing of honey
Bioinformatics– collection and analysis of large and complex biological data
Biotechnology– developing technology and tools by using cellular and molecular processes
Biochemistry- the study of biochemical substances and physiochemical processes
Biomedical engineering- designing and production of medical equipment
Cytology– the study of plant and animal cells.
Dairy technology- rearing milch animals, extraction, processing, marketing, and management of milk and milk products
Ethology– the study of animal behaviour
Entomology– the study of insects
Forestry– studying the structure of the forest, their conservation, and management
Forensic science(criminalistics)- application of science & technology in solving criminal and civil laws
Genetics– the study of inheritance and variation
Medicine– treatment of disease with drugs or curative substances
Microbiology– the study of structure, function, use, and effects of microbes which includes bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae, and fungi. 

Palaeozoology– the study of animal fossils.
Palaeobotany– the study of plant fossils
Pharmacy– production and business of medicine
Pharmacology– studying the nature, preparation, administration, and action of medicine.
Physiotherapy– training disability, disease, and injury by physical means like exercise, – massage, heat, and electricity
Sericulture– rearing of silkworm, extraction, and marketing of silk
Fishery– systematic study of fish, their rearing and harvesting

 

There are several other branches of biology which deals with specific aspect of living – organisms.

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